What does nail fungus look like: symptoms, types and stages

Nail fungus is an infectious disease. This pathology occurs in children and adults and goes through two stages in its formation. As a rule, people apply when they have a neglected form, which complicates the healing process. There are different types of fungus, each of which differs in additional symptoms: the main manifestations of the disease, regardless of the form, are the same. When the first signs of fungus appear, you should contact a dermatologist. To prevent the development of the disease, it is necessary to undergo regular examinations and to observe personal hygiene measures.

Nail fungus: description of the disease

Nail fungusonychomycosis) It is a pathology of an infectious nature and is caused by a variety of fungal organisms.The fungus affects about 20% of the world's population.

Onychomycosis accounts for 15-40% of all nail diseases and is found in 3% of the adult population, usually males and children suffering from narrow shoes. Women rarely get this disease because they take better care of their feet.

The fungus occurs in the context of the following factors:

  • wound;
  • continuous contact with chemicals;
  • wearing tight shoes.
  • portliness;
  • increased sweating
  • flatfeet;
  • non-compliance with personal hygiene rules;
  • dysfunctions of immunity
  • taking antibiotics and other medicines;
  • endocrine diseases, gastrointestinal pathologies and HIV infection.
  • vascular disease?
  • sports activities (running, swimming, tennis and gymnastics);
  • living and working in large industrial cities (miners, etc. ).

Infection occurs during cosmetic surgery in beauty salons with non-compliance with hygiene standards. If a person uses common household items, visits public places in the form of saunas, bathtubs and swimming pools, then this also contributes to the appearance of fungus. You have to be careful when touching wooden objects, as wood has a porous structure and it is almost impossible to remove the contamination. Nail fungus looks like this:

manifestation of fungus on the nails

Main events and types

The symptoms of the fungus depend on the type of pathogen and the extent of the damage to the nail plate. The patient's age affects the recovery rate. In children, nails are affected much less often than in adults. The manifestations depend on the type of pathology:

Fungal forms Signs
Normotrophic There is a change in the color of the nails with the same thickness and shine. First, spots or stripes of yellow or white appear on the lateral surface of the nail plate. If left untreated, they begin to grow and the nail plate gradually changes color. In patients, onycholysis may be observed - the inability of the plaque to develop in the nail spoon
Hypertrophic The color of the nail changes to dark yellow or gray, the plaque thickens by 2 mm or more. This is due to the strong growth of flakes of skin under the nails. Patients complain of loss of gloss. The nail begins to collapse and deform. In patients, they take on a shape similar to bird nails (onychography), which cause pain when walking. The sides are offered for the greatest destruction
Atrophic The nail plate turns gray, the shine is lost. As the disease progresses, the plaque collapses. Often, the nail bed may be exposed and then skin scales may appear over its surface. Atrophy occurs slowly starting from the outer extremity in the direction of the growth zone and the folding of the nails
Lateral and peripheral These two forms occur together and quite often. You may notice a change in the color of the nails in blue-green or black and yellow groove. Gradually it begins to collapse, becomes rough and the edge is uneven. As the pathology progresses, the plaque begins to deform. Swelling and redness of the rollers are sometimes possible. If the patient has a bacterial infection, then the pus is released from under him when pressed
Proximal The skin aspect is affected. This form of the disease occurs when the skin is removed. The nail begins to turn white in the growing area
Total The nail begins to collapse, breaks and collapses
white White spots that look like dust appear

With nail fungus, there are many of the same symptoms:

  • itching of the skin around the nails
  • stratification;
  • fragmentation and discoloration
  • pain in the affected area.


This disease develops slowly, going through various stages of development:

  1. Early (initial) stage.
  2. Started.

In the first stage, the skin of the feet is affected. Itching, cracks and blisters appear between the fingers. In the future, the fungus penetrates deep into the nail and affects it. The disease can only be detected in laboratory conditions after scraping.

At an advanced stage, there is a global nail plate lesion. If at this stage you do not start the treatment of the fungus, then not only the nail but also the skin can be damaged. The main symptoms of the advanced stage are:

  • crushed nails
  • stratification;
  • deformation.


In the treatment of the fungus, drugs are used for topical use.These can be solutions with antifungal substances or varnishes. Patches can be used to exfoliate the affected nail.

If a patient has a nail injury, then these funds are sufficient. If two or more nails have been damaged, systematic and complex treatment should be given. The varnish must be applied continuously and the duration of the treatment is up to 12 months.

Antifungal varnishes should not be used by children with hypersensitivity to any of the components of the drug during pregnancy and lactation. Before using it, you must remove the damaged nail, degrease its surface with a solution of water and alcohol, and then distribute the varnish. To make the nail more aesthetically pleasing, women can cover this nail with cosmetic varnish on top.

Before using antifungal agents, you should boil your feet in water with soda and liquid soap. Next, it must be wiped with a towel and ointment applied to the affected plate, and an adhesive plaster applied over to fix it.

Doctors prescribe drugs in tablet form at an advanced stage of pathology.

This type of physiotherapy can improve the nutrition of the plaque and increase blood circulation. As a result, the applied preparation penetrates better deep into the nail. To be sure of the effectiveness of the course of treatment, you must pass the examinations at 14 and 30 days after treatment.